Mon. Apr 15th, 2024

WRITS and WRIT Types in the United States

The Supreme Court (under Article 32) and the high courts (under Article 226) can issue the writs.

1. Habeas Corpus Means ‘to have the body of’. It is an order issued by the court to a person who has detained another person, to produce the body of the latter before it
2. Mandamus Means ‘we command’. It is a command issued by the court to a public official asking him to perform his official duties that he has failed or refused to perform.
3. Prohibition Means ‘to forbid’. Issued by a higher court to a lower court or tribunal to prevent the latter from exceeding its jurisdiction or usurping a jurisdiction that it does not possess.
4. Certiorari Means ‘to be certified’ or ‘to be informed’. Issued by a higher court to a lower court or tribunal either to transfer a case pending with the latter to itself or to squash the order.
5. Quo-Warranto Means ‘by what authority or warrant’. It is issued by the court to enquire the legality of claim of a person to a public office.


When we got independence, our forefathers gave us some rights and provided us with some rules and regulations with common consensus in the name of the constitution. The objective was to create a superstructure that could govern the nation by installing the rights in the hands of people and whenever there is a threat to human rights, the constitution will safeguard the innocent.

In our Constitution, fundamental rights hold extraordinary significance as they guarantee basic civic liberties for the citizens. Notwithstanding, note that these rights will lose all their importance if a wronged individual doesn’t have any component to move toward the court for infringement of his basic rights. Subsequently, keeping in see this need, the forefathers of our Constitution give us the “right to constitutional remedy” under Articles 32 and 226 of the constitution. We can move toward the court for the issuance of a specific writ for the insurance of our privileges. In this article, we will investigate the importance of Articles 32 and 226. We will likewise dive profound into the significance and sort of writs that can be given by our hon’ble courts.

Presently the inquiry emerges that what is a writ? The significance of the word ‘Writs’ signifies order recorded as a hard copy for the sake of the Court. It is an authoritative record given by the court that arranges an individual or element to play out a particular demonstration or to stop playing out a particular activity or deed. Orders, warrants, bearings, summons, and so forth are all basically writs. A writ appeal is an application recorded under the watchful eye of the skilled Court mentioning it to give a particular writ.

There are five kinds of writ – habeas corpus, mandamus, quo-warranto, prohibition, and certiorari.

Who can file a writ petition? A writ request can be documented by any individual whose Fundamental Rights have been encroached by the State. Under a Public Interest Litigation, any open energetic individual may document a writ request in light of a legitimate concern for the overall population regardless of whether his own Fundamental Right has not encroached.

Where can a writ petition be filed? Under Article 32, a writ appeal can be documented in the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court can give a writ in particular if the candidate can demonstrate that his Fundamental Right has encroached. Under Article 226, a writ appeal can be documented under the steady gaze of any High Court inside whose purview the reason for activity emerges, either entirely or to some extent.



It is a real sense signifies to have a body of”. This writ is utilized to deliver an individual who has been unlawfully confined or detained. By ideals of this writ, the Court coordinates the individual so confined to be brought before it to analyze the legitimateness of his detainment. Assuming the Court reasons that the detainment was unlawful, it guides the individual to be delivered right away.

Conditions of unlawful detention are: The confinement was not done as per the method set down. For example, the individual was not created before a Magistrate within 24 hours of his arrest. The individual was captured when he didn’t abuse any law. A capture was made under a law that is illegal.

This writ guarantees a quick legal audit of the supposed unlawful detainment of the detainee and prompt assurance of his entitlement to opportunity.

In the case of Sunil Batra v. Delhi Administration[1], an application was made to the Supreme Court through a letter composed by a co-convict on the abuse of the detainees. This letter was taken up by the Supreme Court and it gave the writ of habeas corpus expressing that this writ can not exclusively be utilized against illicit capture of the detainee yet additionally for his insurance against any abuse or cruel conduct by the keeping specialists.

In the case of Bhim Singh v State of J and K, Bhim Singh[2], a MLA of State of J and K was improperly captured and confined in the police headquarters and was kept from going to the State Legislative Assembly. The Court granted an amount of Rs.50,000 to the applicant as pay for the infringement of his Constitutional right of individual freedom under Art. 21.


A writ of mandamus, which in Latin signifies “we order, or once in a while “we command”, is the name of this right writ in the common law. It is given by a better court than force a lower court or an administration official to perform obligatory or absolutely ecclesiastical obligations accurately.

Mandamus is an order by the Supreme Court or High Courts to any open power to do or not to accomplish something in the idea of public obligation. It is given against the people or specialists who neglect to play out their compulsory obligations. For the motivation behind giving writ of mandamus, the official should have a pubic obligation and should neglect to perform such obligation. The candidate of this writ should likewise have the option to constrain the presence of some obligation cast upon the power.

In the case of Barada Kanta Adhikary v. The State of West Bengal[3], it was held that the writ of mandamus doesn’t lie against a private individual or private association since they are not dependent on a public obligation.


It signifies ‘what is your authority?’ It is an Order scrutinizing the authority of an individual holding a public office. It is given against the holder of a public office calling upon him to show with what authority he holds such office. The object of this writ is to control the leader’s activity in making arrangements to the public workplaces and furthermore to shield general society from usurpers of public workplaces.

In the case of Jamalpur Arya Samaj Sabha v Dr. D. Smash,[4] the individual from the Working Committee of the Bihar Arya Samaj Sabha held the workplace for more than the recommended residency. The High Court would not issue the Writ of Quo Warranto on the ground that it was a private affiliation.

In the case of K.Bhima Raju v State of Andhra Pradesh[5], the Government pleader was named contrary to the principles. The solicitor documented a writ of Quo Warranto. The High Court suppressed the arrangement of Government Pleader on the ground that the arrangement was not made as per rules.


It signifies ‘to prevent. Each Court is relied upon to act inside the restrictions of their purview. A writ of preclusion is given to keep a substandard Court or Tribunal from surpassing its locale, which isn’t legitimately vested, or acting without a ward or acting contrary to the standards of common equity. The writ of Prohibition can be given against the Courts as well as against the specialists practicing legal or semi-legal capacities.

When can a Writ of Prohibition be granted? When the inferior Court or quasi-judicial authority exceeds its jurisdiction. When the inferior Court acts without lawful jurisdiction.  When the inferior Court or quasi-judicial authority acts against the rule of natural justice. When there is an apparent error on the face of the judicial record.

When is the Writ of Prohibition not issued? At the point when the Court acts inside its legitimate ward. At the point when the Court notices standards of normal equity.


It intends ‘to certify’. Certiorari is a curative writ. It is an Order by the Supreme Court or the High Courts to a substandard Court to eliminate a suit from such second rate Court and mediate upon the legitimacy of the procedures or to suppress the Orders of the sub-par Court. Writ of Certiorari can be given against any second rate Courts as well as against a body practicing legal or semi-legal capacities. This writ is given under the administrative or unique ward and not under the redrafting purview. Any individual whose central right is abused can apply for a Writ of Certiorari.

When a writ of Certiorari can’t be allowed? To eliminate pastoral demonstrations. To eliminate or drop leader acts. To pronounce an Act as unlawful or void.

In the case of Rafiq Khan v State of UP[6], the Magistrate kept up the conviction of the charge as passed by a Panchayat Adalat which is no1 approved under Section 85 of the U. P. Panchayat Raj Act, 1947. Henceforth, the High Court subdued the conviction by a writ of certiorari.


The privilege to protected cure is a piece of our fundamental construction and it can never be repealed. Our Constitution has conceded the preeminent ability to give the writ to the Supreme Court and the High court according to Articles 32 and 226 individually.

Author’s Name: Harshita Swami (Guwahati University)

Image Reference

[1] (1978) 4 SCC 409

[2] AIR 1986 SC 494

[3] AIR 1963 Cal 161

[4] AIR 1954 Pat. 297

[5] AIR 1981 AP 24

[6] AIR 1954 All 3






To Learn More…. Read MORE Below and click the links Below 

Abuse & Neglect The Mandated Reporters  (Police, D.A & Medical & the Bad Actors)

Mandated Reporter Laws – Nurses, District Attorney’s, and Police should listen up
If You Would Like to Learn More About:
The California Mandated Reporting LawClick Here

To Read the Penal Code § 11164-11166 – Child Abuse or Neglect Reporting Act – California Penal Code 11164-11166Article 2.5. (CANRAClick Here

 Mandated Reporter formMandated ReporterFORM SS 8572.pdfThe Child Abuse

Click Here Officers and DA’s
 for (Procedure to Follow)

It Only Takes a Minute to Make a Difference in the Life of a Child learn more below

You can learn more here California Child Abuse and Neglect Reporting Law  its a PDF file

Learn More About True Threats Here below….

We also have the The Brandenburg v. Ohio (1969)1st Amendment

CURRENT TEST = We also have the TheBrandenburg testfor incitement to violence 1st Amendment

We also have the The Incitement to Imminent Lawless Action Test 1st Amendment

We also have the True Threats – Virginia v. Black is most comprehensive Supreme Court definition – 1st Amendment

We also have the Watts v. United StatesTrue Threat Test – 1st Amendment

We also have the Clear and Present Danger Test – 1st Amendment

We also have the Gravity of the Evil Test – 1st Amendment

We also have the Elonis v. United States (2015) – Threats – 1st Amendment

Learn More About What is Obscene…. be careful about education it may enlighten you

We also have the Miller v. California 3 Prong Obscenity Test (Miller Test) – 1st Amendment

We also have the Obscenity and Pornography – 1st Amendment

Learn More About Police, The Government Officials and You….

$$ Retaliatory Arrests and Prosecution $$

Anti-SLAPP Law in California

Freedom of AssemblyPeaceful Assembly1st Amendment Right

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We also have the Nieves v. Bartlett (2019)1st Amendment – Retaliatory Police Arrests

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Retaliatory Prosecution Claims
Against Government Officials1st Amendment

We also have the Reichle v. Howards (2012) – 1st Amendment – Retaliatory Police Arrests
Retaliatory Prosecution Claims
Against Government Officials1st Amendment

Freedom of the Press Flyers, Newspaper, Leaflets, Peaceful Assembly1$t Amendment – Learn More Here

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Dwayne Furlow v. Jon Belmar – Police Warrant – Immunity Fail – 4th, 5th, & 14th Amendment


Penal Code 118 PC – California Penalty of “Perjury” Law

Federal Perjury – Definition by Law

Penal Code 132 PCOffering False Evidence

Penal Code 134 PCPreparing False Evidence

Penal Code 118.1 PCPolice Officer$ Filing False Report$

Spencer v. PetersPolice Fabrication of Evidence – 14th Amendment

Penal Code 148.5 PC –  Making a False Police Report in California

Penal Code 115 PCFiling a False Document in California

Sanctions and Attorney Fee Recovery for Bad Actors

FAM § 3027.1 – Attorney’s Fees and Sanctions For False Child Abuse AllegationsFamily Code 3027.1 – Click Here

FAM § 271 – Awarding Attorney Fees– Family Code 271 Family Court Sanction Click Here

Awarding Discovery Based Sanctions in Family Law Cases – Click Here

FAM § 2030 – Bringing Fairness & Fee RecoveryClick Here

Zamos v. StroudDistrict Attorney Liable for Bad Faith ActionClick Here

Malicious Use of Vexatious Litigant – Vexatious Litigant Order Reversed

Mi$Conduct Pro$ecutorial Mi$Conduct


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The Attorney’s Sworn Oath

Malicious Prosecution / Prosecutorial Misconduct – Know What it is!

New Supreme Court Ruling – makes it easier to sue police

Possible courses of action Prosecutorial Misconduct

Misconduct by Judges & ProsecutorRules of Professional Conduct

Functions and Duties of the ProsecutorProsecution Conduct

Standards on Prosecutorial Investigations – Prosecutorial Investigations

Information On Prosecutorial Discretion

Why Judges, District Attorneys or Attorneys Must Sometimes Recuse Themselves

Fighting Discovery Abuse in LitigationForensic & Investigative AccountingClick Here

Criminal Motions § 1:9 – Motion for Recusal of Prosecutor

Pen. Code, § 1424 – Recusal of Prosecutor

Removing Corrupt Judges, Prosecutors, Jurors and other Individuals & Fake Evidence from Your Case

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The Ethical Obligations of Prosecutors in Cases Involving Postconviction Claims of Innocence

ABA – Functions and Duties of the ProsecutorProsecution Conduct

Prosecutor’s Duty Duty to Disclose Exculpatory Evidence Fordham Law Review PDF

Chapter 14 Disclosure of Exculpatory and Impeachment Information PDF

Mi$Conduct JudiciaMi$Conduct


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Code of Conduct for United States Judge$

Disqualification of a Judge for Prejudice

Judicial Immunity from Civil and Criminal Liability

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l292 Disqualification of Judicial OfficerC.C.P. 170.6 Form

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Commission on Judicial PerformanceJudge Complaint Online Form

Why Judges, District Attorneys or Attorneys Must Sometimes Recuse Themselves

Removing Corrupt Judges, Prosecutors, Jurors and other Individuals & Fake Evidence from Your Case

Obstruction of Justice and Abuse of Process

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Penal Code 135 PCDestroying or Concealing Evidence

Penal Code 141 PC Planting or Tampering with Evidence in California

Penal Code 142 PCPeace Officer Refusing to Arrest or Receive Person Charged with Criminal Offense

Penal Code 182 PC “Criminal Conspiracy” Laws & Penalties

Penal Code 664 PC “Attempted Crimes” in California

Penal Code 32 PC – Accessory After the Fact

Penal Code 31 PC – Aiding and Abetting Laws

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UnfriendingEvidence – 5th Amendment

At the Intersection of Technology and Law

We also have the Introducing TEXT & EMAIL Digital Evidence in California Courts  1st Amendment
so if you are interested in learning about 
Introducing Digital Evidence in California State Courts
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Misconduct by Government Know Your Rights Click Here (must read!)

 Under 42 U.S.C. $ection 1983 – Recoverable Damage$

42 U.S. Code § 1983 – Civil Action for Deprivation of Right$

18 U.S. Code § 242Deprivation of Right$ Under Color of Law

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Removing Corrupt Judges, Prosecutors, Jurors
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Pro Se Forms and Forms Information(Tort Claim Forms here as well)

What is Tort?

Tort Claims Form File Government Claim for Eligible Compensation

Complete and submit the Government Claim Form, including the required $25 filing fee or Fee Waiver Request, and supporting documents, to the GCP.

See Information Guides and Resources below for more information.

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Federal –  Federal SF-95 Tort Claim Form Tort Claim online here or download it here or here from us

California – California Tort Claims Act – California Tort Claim Form Here or here from us

Complaint for Violation of Civil Rights (Non-Prisoner Complaint) and also UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT PDF


WRITS and WRIT Types in the United States


Appealing/Contesting Case/Order/Judgment/Charge/ Suppressing Evidence

First Things First: What Can Be Appealed and What it Takes to Get StartedClick Here

Options to Appealing– Fighting A Judgment Without Filing An Appeal Settlement Or Mediation 

Cal. Code Civ. Proc. § 1008 Motion to Reconsider

Penal Code 1385Dismissal of the Action for Want of Prosecution or Otherwise

Penal Code 1538.5Motion To Suppress Evidence in a California Criminal Case

CACI No. 1501 – Wrongful Use of Civil Proceedings

Penal Code “995 Motions” in California –  Motion to Dismiss

WIC § 700.1If Court Grants Motion to Suppress as Evidence

Suppression Of Exculpatory Evidence / Presentation Of False Or Misleading Evidence – Click Here

Notice of Appeal Felony (Defendant) (CR-120)  1237, 1237.5, 1538.5(m) – Click Here

California Motions in LimineWhat is a Motion in Limine?

Petition for a Writ of Mandate or Writ of Mandamus (learn more…)




Family Law AppealLearn about appealing a Family Court Decision Here

9.3 Section 1983 Claim Against Defendant as (Individuals)14th Amendment this CODE PROTECT$ all US CITIZEN$

Amdt5. – Parental and Children’s Rights“> – 5th Amendment this CODE PROTECT$ all US CITIZEN$

9.32 Interference with Parent / Child Relationship – 14th Amendment this CODE PROTECT$ all US CITIZEN$

California Civil Code Section 52.1
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Parent’s Rights & Children’s Bill of Rights

SEARCH of our site for all articles relating for PARENTS RIGHTS Help!

Child’s Best Interest in Custody Cases

Are You From Out of State (California)?  FL-105 GC-120(A)
Declaration Under Uniform Child Custody Jurisdiction and Enforcement Act (UCCJEA)

Learn More:Family Law Appeal

Necessity Defense in Criminal Cases

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Venue in Family Law Proceedings


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Cal State Bar PDF to read about Three Parent Law
The State Bar of California family law news issue4 2017 vol. 39, no. 4.pdf

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S.F. Human Servs. Agency v. Christine C. (In re Caden C.)

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Child’s Best Interest in Custody Cases

When is a Joinder in a Family Law Case Appropriate?Reason for Joinder

Joinder In Family Law CasesCRC Rule 5.24

GrandParents Rights To Visit
Family Law Packet OC Resource Center
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Motion to vacate an adverse judgment

Mandatory Joinder vs Permissive Joinder – Compulsory vs Dismissive Joinder

When is a Joinder in a Family Law Case Appropriate?

Kyle O. v. Donald R. (2000) 85 Cal.App.4th 848

Punsly v. Ho (2001) 87 Cal.App.4th 1099

Zauseta v. Zauseta (2002) 102 Cal.App.4th 1242

S.F. Human Servs. Agency v. Christine C. (In re Caden C.)

Ian J. v. Peter M

Retrieving Evidence / Internal Investigation Case 

Conviction Integrity Unit (“CIU”) of the Orange County District Attorney OCDAClick Here

Fighting Discovery Abuse in LitigationForensic & Investigative AccountingClick Here

Orange County Data, BodyCam, Police Report, Incident Reports,
and all other available known requests for data below: 


Learn About Policy 814: Discovery Requests OCDA Office – Click Here

Request for Proof In-Custody Form Click Here

Request for Clearance Letter Form Click Here

Application to Obtain Copy of State Summary of Criminal HistoryForm Click Here

Request Authorization Form Release of Case InformationClick Here

Texts / Emails AS EVIDENCEAuthenticating Texts for California Courts

Can I Use Text Messages in My California Divorce?

Two-Steps And Voila: How To Authenticate Text Messages

How Your Texts Can Be Used As Evidence?

California Supreme Court Rules:
Text Messages Sent on Private Government Employees Lines
Subject to Open Records Requests

case law: City of San Jose v. Superior CourtReleasing Private Text/Phone Records of Government  Employees

Public Records Practices After the San Jose Decision

The Decision Briefing Merits After the San Jose Decision

CPRA Public Records Act Data Request – Click Here

Here is the Public Records Service Act Portal for all of CALIFORNIA Click Here

Rules of AdmissibilityEvidence Admissibility

Confrontation ClauseSixth Amendment

Exceptions To The Hearsay RuleConfronting Evidence

Prosecutor’s Obligation to Disclose Exculpatory Evidence

Successful Brady/Napue Cases Suppression of Evidence

Cases Remanded or Hearing Granted Based on Brady/Napue Claims

Unsuccessful But Instructive Brady/Napue Cases

ABA – Functions and Duties of the ProsecutorProsecution Conduct

Frivolous, Meritless or Malicious Prosecution – fiduciary duty

Police BodyCam Footage Release

Electronic Audio Recording Request of OC Court Hearings

Cleaning Up Your Record

Penal Code 851.8 PCCertificate of Factual Innocence in California

Petition to Seal and Destroy Adult Arrest RecordsDownload the PC 851.8 BCIA 8270 Form Here

SB 393: The Consumer Arrest Record Equity Act851.87 – 851.92  & 1000.4 – 11105CARE ACT

Expungement California – How to Clear Criminal Records Under Penal Code 1203.4 PC

How to Vacate a Criminal Conviction in CaliforniaPenal Code 1473.7 PC

Seal & Destroy a Criminal Record

Cleaning Up Your Criminal Record in California (focus OC County)

Governor Pardons – What Does A Governor’s Pardon Do

How to Get a Sentence Commuted (Executive Clemency) in California

How to Reduce a Felony to a MisdemeanorPenal Code 17b PC Motion

 Epic Criminal / Civil Right$ SCOTUS Help Click Here

At issue in Rosenfeld v. New Jersey (1972) was whether a conviction under state law prohibiting profane language in a public place violated a man's First Amendment's protection of free speech. The Supreme Court vacated the man's conviction and remanded the case for reconsideration in light of its recent rulings about fighting words. The man had used profane language at a public school board meeting. (Illustration via Pixabay, public domain) Epic Parents SCOTUS Ruling Parental Right$ Help Click Here

Judge’s & Prosecutor’s Jurisdiction– SCOTUS RULINGS on

Prosecutional Misconduct – SCOTUS Rulings re: Prosecutors


Family Treatment Court Best Practice Standards

Download Here this Recommended Citation

Please take time to learn new UPCOMING 

The PROPOSED Parental Rights Amendment
to the US CONSTITUTION Click Here to visit their site

The proposed Parental Rights Amendment will specifically add parental rights in the text of the U.S. Constitution, protecting these rights for both current and future generations.

The Parental Rights Amendment is currently in the U.S. Senate, and is being introduced in the U.S. House.